The Nutrients We Use



Vitamin B12 is the only vitamin that is synthesized strictly by microorganisms. It is involved in fat + carbohydrate metabolism + is necessary for the synthesis of myelin. B12 supports healthy nerve cells, red blood cell production, DNA/RNA production, iron function + many other vital bodily functions important for optimal health.

The incidence of Vitamin B12 deficiency is underestimated in practice. B12 is irregularly absorbed from the distal small intestine following oral administration + the potential for B12 deficiency is common. Deficiency is mostly due to inadequate intrinsic factor (IF) secretion, impaired intestinal absorption, dietary deficiency, or use of medications that deplete B12 from the body or block its absorption. Lack of glutathione in the body may also play a role. Glutathione supports transportation of B12 in the body + is depleted as we age. Glutathione is part of several shots we offer + can be added to any shot for an additional fee. This is recommended if you've been getting a B12 shot + have not experienced a good effect—you may be deficient in glutathione.

Symptoms of B12 deficiency include anemia, fatigue, constipation, loss of appetite, weight loss, numbness + tingling in the hands + feet, weakness, depression, dementia, poor memory, oral soreness + an increased risk for cardiovascular events. 

Many medications—OTC (over the counter) + prescription—deplete B12 in the body. These include antacids, oral estrogens, oral contraceptives, anticonvulsants, anti-inflammatories (corticosteroids, prednisone, etc), metformin + antiviral agents. 

Populations at highest risk for B12 deficiency are (1) older persons; (2) vegans + vegetarians; (3) people with gastrointestinal disease; (4) those with increased need, such as people with autoimmune disease + HIV infection; (5) persons under long-term treatment with proton pump inhibitors, metformin or H-2 blockers; and (6) people with renal disease.

There is no “gold standard” for laboratory chemistry confirmation of a clinically relevant Vitamin B12 deficiency. In practice, diagnosis of a Vitamin B12 deficiency is primarily done by determining the serum Vitamin B12 level—a low-cost test with limited specificity and sensitivity. The normal serum levels based on modern laboratory chemistry methods are 200–1000 ng/L. However, a functional B12 deficiency may also be present at levels under 450 ng/L. Persons with B12 concentrations within the reference range may already manifest clinical signs of a Vitamin B12 deficiency. Other diagnostic blood tests to evaluate include methylmalonic acid (MMA), homocysteine levels, + the HoloTC test. Determination of methylmalonic acid + homocysteine are particularly recommended.

A high B12 level on a typical blood test when supplementing with B12 is not of concern. However, a high level when NOT supplementing with B12 may necessitate further testing to rule out any underlying condition.

The Forms We Use

We use both hydroxocobalamin + methylcobalamin. While cyanocobalamin is the most widely used form of vitamin B12, mostly because of its low cost + commercial availability, only traces of cyanocobalamin occur naturally in the human body, which contains primarily hydroxocobalamin, adenosylcobalamin + methylcobalamin. Additionally, treatment with cyanocobalamin leads to the release of small amounts of cyanide in the body.

Hydroxocobalamin is a stable form of B12. It occurs naturally in the human body + can be converted to the active coenzyme forms. It does not contain a cyanide molecule + it produces higher + more sustained serum vitamin B12 levels in the body.

Methylcobalamin is a coenzyme form of B12 + is typically recommended for those with MTHFR. However, there is no clear evidence that methylcobalamin is preferable to hydroxocobalamin. Methylcobalamin cannot convert into adenosylcobalamin (the other coenzyme form of B12), whereas hydroxocobalamin increases the concentration of both biologically active forms of B12. Based on the evidence available, hydroxocobalamin appears to be the preferred form of vitamin B12 for therapeutic use. There is an advantage to administering hydroxocobalamin + methylcobalamin together, which is why we offer both forms of vitamin B12. We are all about producing results + helping you feel better!

Click here for a detailed editorial regarding the different forms of B12 by Alan R. Gaby, MD.


The B-complex in our formulas contains thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin-5-phosphate (vitamin B2), niacinamide (vitamin B3) + pyridoxine (vitamin B6). These water soluble vitamins work synergistically to promote health + energy. 

Thiamin (vitamin B1) helps break down fats + protein, improves digestion + supports the nervous system, skin, hair, eyes, mouth, liver + the immune system. It is easily depleted by alcohol consumption + deficiency is quite common, which can significantly affect the functioning of the central nervous system (CNS). Symptoms of deficiency can lead to depression, irritability, memory loss, cognitive decline, Alzheimer's, muscle weakness, fatigue + heart issues. 

Riboflavin (vitamin B2) supports metabolism, carbohydrate conversion, digestion, functionality of the nervous system, skin, hair, eyes, mouth, liver + helps metabolize fats + protein. Deficiency is quite common with symptoms that may include anemia, decreased free radical protection, cataracts, poor thyroid function, B6 deficiency, fatigue + elevated homocysteine, which can lead to heart issues.

Niacin (vitamin B3) improves energy, digestion + circulation; supports the nervous system, skin, hair, eyes + liver; eliminates toxins + balances hormones. Deficiency may result in cracking + scaling skin, swollen or enlarged tongue, diarrhea, digestive problems, confusion, anxiety + fatigue. Once absorbed, the body converts niacin into nicotinamide + the coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) + nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). Research shows NAD regulates metabolism + the aging process. 

Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) supports protein metabolism, RBC (red blood cell) production, homocysteine reduction + enhanced immune function. It also supports nerve + muscle cells, DNA/RNA synthesis + B12 absorption. Deficiency is fairly common + may cause depression, sleep disturbances, skin problems, confusion, anxiety + fatigue. 

Medications that can cause deficiencies in these water-soluble vitamins include anti-inflammatories, diuretics, cardiovascular drugs, antibiotics, anti-depressants (especially B2), oral contraceptives + HRT (Hormone Replacement Therapy). Anticonvulsants can cause a deficiency of thiamine. 

B-complex (B1, B2, B3, B6) is in our (B) Balanced™, (B) Brilliant™, (B) Calm™, (B) Pain Free™, (B) Ripped™, (B) a Rock Star™ + (B) Skinny™ shots.

In addition to the above listed shots, pyridoxine (vitamin B6) is also in our (B) Ageless™, (B) Invincible™ + (B) Wonder Woman shots. 


Biotin is an important vitamin involved in many metabolic reactions + is a component of enzymes that breaks down substances in the body like fats, carbohydrates + others. It's commonly used to treat hair loss (including alopecia), brittle nails, nerve damage + many other conditions + supports healthy hair, skin + nails in general. Additionally, it plays a role in maintaining normal blood glucose when carbohydrate intake is low. 

Please be aware that biotin (vitamin B7) can significantly interfere with certain lab tests + cause incorrect test results which may go undetected. Many blood tests, including but not limited to cardiovascular diagnostic tests + hormone tests (including thyroid hormone), that use biotin technology are potentially affected + incorrect test results may be generated if there is biotin in the blood stream at the time of the blood draw. Please talk to your doctor if you’re going in for blood work + take any type of biotin supplement.

Biotin is found in our (B) AGELESS™ shot. You can also add it to any shot for an additional fee.


Antiviral agents + anticonvulsant drugs can lead to a deficiency in carnitine leading to elevated cholesterol, abnormal liver function, impaired glucose (blood sugar) control, various cardiovascular problems, a weak immune system + low energy. 

Carnitine improves energy, supports heart function + helps burn fat. It also oxidizes amino acids for energy + metabolizes ketones. 

When carnitine is consumed—eating red meat or taking a dietary supplement—gut bacteria transform carnitine into TMAO—trimethylamine oxide—which is absorbed back into the body within only one hour of consumption. TMAO is a toxin; it increases the risk of cholesterol buildup + puts you at risk for deadly disease—heart disease, heart attack, stroke, cancer— + death. The higher the carnitine is in the gut, the higher the TMAO levels are in the body.

Interestingly, vegans or those who follow a whole food plant based (WFPB) diet don't develop TMAO-producing bacteria in their gut. Therefore, any carnitine vegans get from eating certain veggies, grains + fruit is not turned into TMAO. Carnitine is not the concern, it's the toxic TMAO. 

When carnitine is injected, it bypasses the gut, which means gut bacteria can't turn it into TMAO. The healthiest way to supplement carnitine is by injection. 

Carnitine is in our (B) Ageless™, (B) Balanced™, (B) Brilliant™, (B) Calm™, (B) Invincible™, (B) Pain Free™, (B) Ripped™, (B) a Rock Star™, (B) Skinny™ + (B) Wonder Woman™ shots.


Choline is a vitamin-like essential nutrient + methyl donor involved in many physiological processes including normal metabolism + transport of lipids (fat), methylation reactions + neurotransmitter synthesis. It is commonly known as a lipotropic, or a nutrient that emulsifies fat. That means it helps metabolize fat + cholesterol by breaking down lipids into smaller particles that are easier to remove + reduces fatty build-up in organs, especially the liver.

Deficiency causes muscle damage + abnormal deposition of fat in the liver, resulting in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Studies show that choline is essential for optimal brain development + influences cognitive function in later life. 

Many people believe eating eggs, rich in choline, is key to a healthy diet. However, gut bacteria can turn choline into the toxic byproduct + cardiotoxicant TMAO—trimethylamine oxide—which is absorbed back into the body within only one hour of consumption. Aside from eggs, other major dietary sources of choline include milk, liver, red meat, poultry, shell fish + fish. The more you consume these foods, the higher the choline is in the gut + the higher the TMAO levels are, putting you at high risk for deadly disease—heart disease, heart attack, stroke, cancer— + death.

Interestingly, vegans or those who follow a whole food plant based (WFPB) diet don't develop TMAO-producing bacteria in their gut. Therefore, any choline that vegans get from eating beans, veggies, grains + fruit is not turned into TMAO. It's not the choline itself we're worried about, but the toxic TMAO. 

When choline is injected, it bypasses the gut, which means gut bacteria can't turn it into TMAO putting you at risk for deadly disease. The healthiest way to supplement choline is by injection. 

Choline is in our (B) Ageless™, (B) Balanced™, (B) Brilliant™, (B) Calm™, (B) Invincible™, (B) Pain Free™, (B) Ripped™, (B) a Rock Star™, (B) Skinny™ + (B) Wonder Woman™ shots.


Dexpanthenol is a pro-vitamin (biologically active form) of vitamin B5—a precursor needed for acetylcholine synthesis, which in turn causes parasympathetic activity to maintain normal GI activity. It forms coenzyme A in the body, which is essential for many universal reactions involved in carbohydrate, fat + protein metabolism within the krebs cycle. It reduces abdominal bloating (distension) due to reduced intestinal function + benefits chronic fatigue syndrome. It's an essential contributor in the adrenal cascade. High concentrations of B5 are found in the adrenal glands to support the energy needed to produce adrenal hormones. It plays an important role in nourishing, supporting + strengthening your adrenals as well as other glands + biochemical pathways involved in the stress response.

Dexpanthenol is in our (B) Ageless™, (B) Balanced™, (B) Brilliant™, (B) Calm™ + (B) Invincible™ shots. You can also add it to any shot that doesn’t already contain it for an additional fee.


Glutathione is a complex of three amino acids, referred to as a tripeptide. It's important for proper immune function + detoxification. It also has anti-aging properties, decreases inflammation + improves muscle fatigue. 

Glutathione is depleted in the body as we age. Deficiency is very common + can cause free radical overload, elevated homocysteine, elevated cancer risk, cataracts, macular degeneration, impaired immune function + buildup of toxins. Glutathione supports transportation of methylcobalamin (B12) in the body, meaning if you're deficient, you may not be getting full benefit from a B12 shot. 

Medications that deplete glutathione include Tylenol® + any acetaminophen (APAP) containing drug including hydrocodone/acetaminophen + oxycodone/acetaminophen.

Glutathione is found in our (B) Ageless™, (B) Invincible™ + (B) a Rock Star™ shots; it can also be added to any of our shots for an additional fee, which is recommended if you've been getting a B12 shot + have not experienced a good effect—you may be deficient in glutathione.


Inositol is sometimes referred to as a vitamin, although it's not officially recognized as such. It's a water soluble fatty lipid that's required for the formation of healthy cells, synthesized in the body from glucose by intestinal bacteria. It has been shown to be effective in treating some cases of depression, anxiety, OCD + other psychological disorders that respond to serotonin uptake inhibitors, as well as sleep disorders + female hormone imbalance. It is also a second messenger regulating several hormones such as insulin + TSH (Thyroid Stimulating Hormone). A recent random controlled study published in the European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences demonstrated that inositol + selenium help restore normal thyroid function in Hashimotos patients with subclinical hypothyroidism having a TSH level between 3-6 mIU/L, elevated TPO +/or thyroglobulin antibodies + normal free T4 + T3 levels.

This nutrient functions very closely with choline + is in our (B) Ageless™, (B) Balanced™, (B) Brilliant™, (B) Calm™, (B) Invincible™, (B) Pain Free™, (B) Ripped™, (B) a Rock Star™, (B) Skinny™ + (B) Wonder Woman™ shots.


Magnesium is involved in 300 biochemical reactions in the body. It supports muscle + nerve function, heart rhythm, the immune system, strong bones + helps regulate calcium, copper, zinc, potassium + vitamin D.

Deficiency of magnesium is extremely common + affects appetite, personality + heart rhythm. Deficiency can cause nausea, vomiting, fatigue, cramps, numbness, tingling, seizures, heart spasms, tension + headache. 

Magnesium is in our (B) CALM™ + (B) PAIN FREE™ shots. You can also add it to any shot that doesn’t already contain it for an additional fee.


Methionine is an amino acid + plays an important role in many cell functions. It is used to prevent liver damage caused by acetaminophen (Tylenol) + is used to treat liver disorders, depression, alcoholism, allergies, asthma, copper poisoning, radiation side effects, schizophrenia, drug withdrawal + Parkinson's disease. It also improves wound healing + helps the body process + eliminate fat.

This nutrient is in our (B) Ageless™, (B) Balanced™, (B) Brilliant™, (B) Calm™, (B) Invincible™, (B) Pain Free, (B) Ripped™, (B) a Rock Star™, (B) Skinny™ + (B) Wonder Woman™ shots™. 


Taurine is an amino acid that serves as a neurotransmitter + antioxidant, helping to regulate the immune system. It helps lower blood pressure + calms the sympathetic nervous system—the part of the nervous system that responds to stress. Studies suggest that taurine supplementation may improve both athletic + mental performance. Taurine is involved with body temperature regulation, maintenance of normal retinal structure + normal heart function (Zelikovic and Chesney, 1989). It also helps maintain proper hydration + electrolyte balance in your cells. 

Deficiency can lead to vision problems, hypertension, sleep difficulties, hyperactivity, problems with endurance + delayed recovery after workouts, as well as depression, anxiety + weight gain. 

This nutrient is found in our (B) Balanced™, (B) Brilliant™, (B) Calm™, (B) Energized™ + (B) Invincible™ shots. It can also be added to any of our shots that don’t already contain taurine for an additional fee.